Haripur District


Haripur (Urdu: ہری پور,"The Town of Hari or Vishnu") is a district in the Hazara region of Pakistan with an altitude of around 610 metres (2,000 ft) above sea level. Haripur District has the third highest Human Development Index of all the districts in the Pakistan.

History
Ancient and medieval period
 
The Haripur district is situated at the heart of the ancient Gandhara civilization. At the time of Alexander the region including Taxila was known as "Eastern Gandhara", with its boundaries reaching as far as Kashmir. Geographically it lies on either side of the Sindu River, (Indus the River Goddess of Rigveda), near the Tarbela Reservoir. Most historians[who?] believe that the Aryans must have composed a number of Vedic hymns on the banks of Indus. During the kingship of his father Bindusara, the Maharaja Ashoka ruled this region as governor and, according to Tibetan Buddhist traditional stories, he died here.
 
Turkish rule
 
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In 1399, the Muslim warrior Timur, on his return to Kabul, stationed his Turk soldiers in Hazara to protect the important route between Kabul and Kashmir. By 1472, Prince Shahab-ud-Din came from Kabul and established his rule over the region. Prince Shahab-ud-Din, a Turk of central Asian origin and a descendant of Amir Taimur, founded the state and named it Pakhli Sarkar and chose the Gulibagh as his capital. Their territory at that time was up to Attock as per Raja Irshad's Tarikh e Hazara. Haripur was a part of Pakhli Sarkar at that time.
 
During the period of Mughal rule, local Turkish chiefs acknowledged Mughal authority. In fact, (Pakhli) provided the main route to Kashmir and was the most commonly used route for Emperor Akbar to travel to Kashmir. During the reign of Akbar one Turk Chief revolted against the authority of Moghals on the plea that the cental government of Mughals were interfering too much in to internal affairs of Pakhli. Akbar defeated him. Later he pardoned him and restored his rule. But since then Mughals levied no tax on Pakhli Sarkar and perhaps this was the only state in Sub-continent, which was exempted from taxation.
 
In the 18th century, Turkish rule came to an end due to the increased aggression of the Swathis and their allied forces.Haripur was already liberated from Turks by Gakhars Rajas of Haripur. At that time it was not called Haripur. The area was part of Lower Tanawal area of Pkhali Sarkar and ruled by Turks of Pakhli Sarkar. The last Wali of the Lower Tanawal (headquarter Sherwan) was Sultan Qiyasuddin, the younger brother of Sultan Memood Kurd, who was the last Turk ruler in Hazara (Pakhli Sarkar).Pakhli Sarkar got a last blow when Syed Jala Shah commonly known as Jalal Baba conspired against his own father in Law i.e. Sultan Memood Kurd. the Sultan was away to Dehli, when called by Aurangzeb Alamgir for some central Asian expeditions. Syed Jalal Shah took advantage of the situation and invited Swaties to attack Pakhli Sarkar to overthrow the Turks. He succeeded and overthrew Turks in 1703. The descendants of these Turk rulers still live in various parts of Hazara Division, such as Behali, Manakrai, etc.

Durranis
 
When Ahmad Shah Durrani expanded his kingdom to Punjab, Hazara also came under his control. Durrani considered it wise to rule the area through local tribal chiefs. The Durranis' rule ended abruptly in the beginning of the 18th century.
 
Shilmani or Sulemani
 
The Shilmani or Shalmani شلمانى is a Pashtun tribe called shilmani pathan who are primarily concentrated in the Shalman valley in Khyber agency near Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan, the tribe is also present in different areas of Pakistan in balochistan Makran Division some baloch speaking who called sulemani baloch, Afghanistan and Iran. According to Khan Roshan khan "Shalmani or shilmani,شلمانى are "Banu Bakht,بنو بخت" Israel who were living in an area "Shalman,شلمان" in Syria.These Banu Bakht were the land lords of shalman(شلمان),Ainab(عيناب) and Baiswad(بيسود) at the border of Lebanon and Syria. But when they exiled to Khorasan(خراسان),they were known as shalmani and Baiswad in Khorasan because of their place name "Shalman" in Syria.And still they are called Shalmani". According to Eng.Farid Shahzada Khan Shalmani "this area Shilman is still present with same name at the border of Lebanon and Syria near Hera Water Fall(شلال حرا) along Al-Asee river(نهر العاصى), one of the famous waterfalls of Lebanon. But now Shilman area is completely in the territory of Lebanese Government. Again according to Eng. Farid Shahzad Khan Shilmani, the same shilman is named to an area and city in Kordestan Iran whose geographical coordinates are 35° 51' 16" North, 46° 1' 8" East. Similarly Shalman in Gilan and Rud-e-shalman(Shalman River,رود شلمان) the fourth largest river in Iran famous for fishing and also a International Airport in Iran Sulemanya International Airport, and femous Scientis of Atomic energy are also Shilmani. Another example is the shalmani tribe of Libya e.g. Libyan Poet Mohammed Abdelsalam al-Shilmani .There is a soccer referee Abdel Hakim Shelmani from Libya.There is one volcano Mountain Shalman Mountain(جبل شلمان) near Jabal Hil in Makkah Saudi Arabia. This mountain is 6500–4000 years old. Another shalman area is present in south eastern Egypt.
 
Sikh annexation
 
The Sikhs annexed Hazara in two stages. First Lower Hazara was annexed when the Sikhs defeated the Afghan army led by Fateh Khan and Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai and wrested control of Akbar's fort of Attock in 1813. Upper Hazara suffered a similar fate when the Sikhs took Kashmir from the Barakzai Afghans in 1819.[1] The town of Haripur (meaning 'Hari's town') was founded in 1822 by Hari Singh Nalwa the Commander-in-Chief of Ranjit Singh's army following advice from Mukkadam Musharaf of Kot Najibullah. On the successful completion of his tenure as Governor of Kashmir in 1821, Pakhli and Damtaur were bestowed upon Nalwa as a jagir in 1822. As soon as Hari Singh Nalwa received this grant, he built the walled town of Haripur in the heart of the Haripur plain with the fort of Harkishan Garh encircled by a deep trench. The site selected by Hari Singh had previously seen some of the fiercest encounters between Sikhs and the local tribes.
 
British India
 
Hari Singh's name and the presence of his fort at Harkishangarh eventually brought a feeling of security to the region. In 1835, Baron Heugel, a German traveller found only remnants of the four-yard thick and 16 yard high wall built to initially protect the town.[2]
 
The sole example of a planned town in this region until the British built Abbottabad many years later, Haripur continued to grow and flourish to eventually became a city and later a district.
 
Haripur once bore the official name of Haripur Hazara and was the capital of Hazara until 1853 when the new capital Abbottabad was built, named after Indian Army officer James Abbott, the first deputy commissioner of Hazara (1849–1853). In March 1849, the Punjab was annexed by the British Empire. In Abbott's time as under former Sikh domination, Haripur was the district headquarters of Hazara, but soon after he departed, Abbottabad took its place. Abbott later painted a noted picture of the town of Haripur and its commanding fort of Harkishangarh.
 
Administration
 
Tilla Charouni, On the border between Haripur District and Islamabad capital territory
The District of Haripur was a Tehsil, or sub-division of Abbottabad District, until 1992 when it separated and became a district in its own right. The district is presently (2010–2011) represented in the provincial assembly by four elected MPAs. One Member is elected to the National/Federal Assembly from the district.
 
Haripur District is divided into two tehsils, further subdivided into 44 Union Councils of which 15 are urban Union Councils.he following 44 pages are in this category, out of 44 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more). A Ali Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa B Bagra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Baitgali Bakka, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Bandi Sher Khan Barkot, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Beer, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Bherrary Breela D Darwesh Dheendah Dingi G Ghazi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa H Haripur Central Haripur North H cont. Haripur South Hattar J Jabri Jatti Pind K Kalinjar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khalabat Township Khanpur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Kholian Bala Kot Najeebullah Kotehrra Kundi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa L Landarmang M Mankrai Maqsood N Najifpur N cont. Nara Amaz P Pandak, Pakistan Panian Pind Hasham Khan Pind Kamal Khan Q Qazipur R Rehana S Sarai Saleh Serai Niamat Khan Sikandarpur Sirikot Sirya T Tarbela Tofkian Categories: Union councils of Khyber PakhtunkhwaHaripur District
 
Haripur Tehsil Proper
 
Tehsil Haripur comprises the Maidan-e-Hazara and Panjkatha areas. The Hazara Plain, once called Hazara, is bounded by the Gandghar Range in the north west, the Haro River in the west, Siri Bang, Sarara and the Margalla Ranges in the south, the Haro River and its tributary Nilan Stream in the south east, the Jahngra and Chamba villages of Tehsil Havelian in the East and the upper Tanawal on the left bank of the Indus on its northern limits.
 
Natural resources
 
The area is rich in natural resources and contains two important reservoirs, the Tarbela Dam and Khanpur Dam. Geographically, it is the gateway to Hazara, the Hazara Division, and the Pakistani capital Islamabad.
 
Boundary

Boundaries of Haripur
Geographically, the significance of the district is due to its boundaries that border Mardan District, centre of the ancient Gandhara civilization in the north west, Abbottabad District in the north east, Mansehra District in the north, the Margallah hills of Islamabad in the south east, the Swat valley in the north-west as well as the Buner and Swabi districts in the west. Moreover, the Swabi, Mansehra and Abbottabad districts of Hazara, two districts of Punjab province i.e. Attock and Rawalpindi, lie to the southwest and southeast respectively of Haripur district. The Federal Capital Islamabad is also adjacent to the district in the south.
 
Demographics
 
As of the 1998 census, Haripur's population was 692,228, but was estimated to have increased to 803,000 in 2005. Of these people, 12.0% live in urban districts with the remaining 88.0% resident in rural areas.
 
The population is spread over an area of 1,725 square kilometres (666 sq mi), with a population density of 401.3 persons per km²,[4] this compares to an average population density of 233 persons per km², in the Hazara as whole. The average household size of the district is 6.6 persons compared to 8 at the provincial level. Agriculture is the predominant livelihood of the rural population while the total arable area is 77,370 acres (313.1 km²).
 
Language
 
Hindko, Pashto Pahari, Urdu and Gojri languages are spoken by the local people.
 
Literacy rate
 
The overall literacy rate in the Haripur district is 53.7%, substantially higher than the provincial literacy rate in Hazara (35.2%) as a whole. The female literacy rate is only 37.4% compared to male literacy of 63.6%. The urban/rural break down shows that rural literacy is lower (51.4%) than urban literacy (69.7%).
 
Telcom Enterprises TM
 
Telcom Enterprises is the one of the leading firms in Pakistan which is committed to provide a wide range of IT and Telecommunication services and Solutions from since 1994-2012. Bakhtawar Khan is the Managing Director of Telcom Enterprises TM.He is a Residience of Fort Road Haripur and he is also a Microsoft Company member and writer of the IT books.
 
Education
 
Haripur District has two government funded post graduate colleges, which provides higher level education, as well as four degree colleges for girls which are also funded by the government to provide higher education for girls coming from all over the city.
 
In 2000–2001, Haripur had 907 government primary schools, including 656 for boys and 251 for girls. In addition to government primary schools, 166 mosque schools were also functional in the district during this period.
 
The 907 government primary schools cater a primary school age population (5–9 years) of 101,670, out of which 52,240 (51.38%) were boys and 49,430 (48.61%) were girls. The ratio of the primary schools with the primary school going age population indicates that there is limited access to primary education. The district had 83 middle schools (56 for boys and 27 for girls), during 2001.
 
Mosque schools were introduced under the National Education Policy in 1979 at the time of Fifth Five-Year Plan (1978–83). Such establishments are organized on the basis of 20–30 students, normally under one PTC teacher and an Imam of the mosque as staff members. They have a shorter teaching programme (about four hours a day), the same curriculum as primary schools and also teach Quran-e-Nazira (recitation of the Quran). Students qualifying from such schools are eligible for admission to formal schools for higher education.
 
During 2000–2001, 166 mosque schools (15.47% of the total primary schools) were oprational in the district, while in 1997–1998, this number had increased to 180.[citation needed] Details about the number of teachers and students, curricular activities and performance of these schools are not available. The school age population catered for by the mosque schools is also not available.

Industries
 
Furthermore, many different size factories exist on the Hatar Industrial Estate. Because of these industries, the district plays an important role in national economic development.
 
Since Haripur has developed medium and large scale industries, its role in the agricultural field is also important. The district provides fruit and vegetables not only to Peshawar but also to Islamabad and the Punjab. One of the most prominent industries in the Haripur district is known as Cactus Fertilizer (formerly known as Pak-China Fertilizers) which is the largest producer of phosphate fertilizer in Pakistan.

References
 
1.^ Nalwa, V. (2009), Hari Singh Nalwa - Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar, pp. 77-104, ISBN 81-7304-785-5.
 2.^ Nalwa, V. (2009), Hari Singh Nalwa - Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar, pp. 224-5, ISBN 81-7304-785-5.
 3.^ 'The Rock Aornos from Huzara' - British Library Online Gallery
 4.^ Information Pakistan - Districts of Pakistan

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