The History of Pashto language

Pushto or Pakhto پښتو is one of the national languages of Afghanistan (Dari Persian is the other). Major Pushto speaking cities in Afghanistan are Kandahar (Qandahar), Kabul. There are over 9 million speakers of Pushto in Afghanistan.

LINGUISTIC AFFILIATION (its relations to other languages) Pushto is one of the East Iranian group of languages, which includes, for example, Ossete (North Ossetian, south Ossetian, Caucasus Soviet Socialist Republic) and Yaghnobi (Tajikistan).

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Pashtunwali/ Pakhtunwali/ Pukhtunwali

Pashtunwali (Pashto: پښتونوالی) or Pakhtunwali is a concept of living or philosophy for the Pashtun people and is regarded as an honour code and a non-written law for the people. Though Pashtunwali dates back to the pre-Islamic era of Bactria, its practice by the pashtuns does not not necessarily contravene Islamic principles.It is practiced by Pashtuns in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and by members of the Pashtun diaspora around the world.

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The code of Pashtunwali

Pashtunwali is an unwritten law and ideology of the Pashtun society inherited from their forefathers. It is a dominant force of Pashtun culture and identity. Pashtunwali is conservative, oligarchic, centuries old but still a young phenomenon in the Pashtun culture and socio-economic structure.

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The codes!

  •  Faith - trust in God ("Allah" in Arabic and "Khudai" or "Sekhtan" in Pashto). The notion of trusting in the one creator generally comports to Islamic monotheism and tawheed.
  • Good Thoughts, Good Words, Good Deeds - A Pashtun always strive towards thinking good thoughts, speaking good words and doing good deeds.

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Primary concepts of Pakhunwali

Some useful words that signify individual or collective Pashtun tribal functions are given below in Pushto language. The first four form the major components of Pashtunwali.

  • Melmastia (hospitality) - to show hospitality to all visitors, regardless of whom they are, their ethnic, religious, or national background, without hope of remuneration or favour.

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