Swat (pronounced [ˈsʋaːt̪], (Pashto:سوات) is a valley and an administrative district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border. It is the upper valley of the Swat River, which rises in the Hindu Kush range. The capital of Swat is Saidu Sharif, but the main town in the Swat valley is Mingora.
It was a princely state (see Swat (princely state)) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa until it was dissolved in 1969. The valley is almost entirely populated by ethnic Pashtun.
The primary local language of the Swat region is Pashto, andis understood and used by roughly 93% of the population as their mother tongue, some other people in the north in Swat Kohistan speak Kohistani languages like Torwali, Gojri and Kalami. Urdu being the national language is also spoken and understood, and to a lesser extent English. The population at the 1981 census was 715,938, which had risen to 1,257,602 at the next census in 1998. Main Tribes are Yusufzais, Akhund Khel Miangan (Syed), Chitralis, Kohistanis, Gurjar, Akhund khel Yousafzai, Nooristani, and Awans.
The valley of Swat is situated in the north of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 35° north latitude and 72° and 30° east longitude, and is enclosed by the mountains. Chitral and Gilgit–Baltistan are situated in the north, Dir in the west, and Mardan in the south. The Indus River separates it from Hazara in the east.
Physical features: Swat can be divided into two physical regions - mountains and plains.